Glosář pojmů ve výživě

ALPHA-LIPOIC ACID is a naturally occurring sulphur-containing compound which is involved in energy metabolism in mitochondria. Lipoic acid has strong antioxidant properties and works with vitamin C and glutathione to protect cell membranes. Lipoic acid has been reported to be beneficial in conditions relating to liver disease. ARTICHOKE EXTRACT is an extract from the bulb vegetable Cynara scolymus containing polyphenolic compounds, fibres, inulin, vitamin C and minerals. The extract has antioxidant properties and has the ability to prevent damage to the liver. It also promotes the flow of bile from the liver into the intestine and has anti-cholesterol effects. BOSWELLIA EXTRACT is a herbal extract taken from the Boswellia serrata tree and contains several compounds (Terepenes and Boswellic acids) which have been shown to have effects which include anti-inflammatory properties, analgesic properties and increased speed in healing from infections. BRANCHED CHAIN AMINO ACIDS including Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine. They account for 35% of all the essential amino acids in muscle proteins. These promote protein synthesis and turnover and thus aid in muscle recovery. They promote the metabolism of glucose and reduce lactic acid build up. CALCIFIED SEAWEED (from Lithothamnium Calcareum) is seaweed which has calcium carbonate within its cell walls. This seaweed is used to act as a buffer against excess acid in the stomach. CALCIUM is a macromineral which provides strength to bones and teeth. It is involved in many processes in the horse’s body such as muscle contraction, blood clotting and maintaining cell wall structure. Calcium and Magnesium have a synergistic relationship. CHONDROITIN SULPHATE is the main glycosaminoglycan (GAG) compound found in articular cartilage. It provides much of cartilages resistance to compression. Additionally it has anti-inflammatory properties and inhibits enzymes that decompose joint cartilage. CITRIC ACID is a weak organic acid occurring naturally in citrus fruits and whose derivatives have a buffering capacity and in biological fluids will reduce acidosis if it is occurring as a result of lactic acid build up. CITRUS BIOFLAVONOID COMPLEX is a large class of “polyphenolic” plant derived compounds which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. They protect the body from free radical damage and oxidative stress. They also enhance the effect of vitamin C within the body. COPPER is essential for several enzymes involved in the synthesis and maintenance of elastic connective tissue. It is also vital for bone maturation. Additionally it is integral in the mobilisation of iron stores, functioning in the process of moving iron to areas of the body where it is needed. CURCUMIN is a compound obtained from turmeric. Curcumin functions as a powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and has anti-cancer properties. As a result of these properties, it reduces the damage caused by free radicals. ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS include Lysine, Methionine, Valine, Leucine, Isoleucine and Threonine. They are the building blocks of protein which is essential for the proper growth of tissue, muscles and ligaments which all play a part in correct skeletal development. FISH PROTEIN HYDROLYSATE is fish protein which has been through a process termed hydrolysis to produce a mixture of amino acids and short peptides of a very specific size that are biologically active and more easily absorbed. These produce a stress-relieving effect on the central nervous system. GLUCOSAMINE is an amino sugar and a crucial precursor for the synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. For this reason it supports the structure and function of articular cartilage in joints. GRAPE SEED EXTRACT contains vitamin E, linoleic acid and a class of bioflavonoids called proanthocyanidins. These have antioxidant properties and evidence shows a positive benefit on blood vessel health. HESPERIDIN is a bioflavonoid compound sourced primarily in citrus fruits (mainly oranges). Hesperidin functions in supporting healthy circulation with an effect of promoting blood flow through the circulatory system. Hesperidin additionally has physiological antioxidant effects. HYPOCHLOROUS ACID is a weak acid which is released by cells of the immune system to kill bacteria. It is anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal. It is very effective at breaking down the cell wall of bacteria and killing bacteria. It is pH neutral and non-toxic to the body. INOSITOL is a sugar compound with a structure similar to glucose. It plays an important role as structural basis for many secondary neurotransmitters and messenger compounds within the body. IODINE is a trace element necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormones that regulate basal metabolism. General signs of deficiency include lethargy, dull coat/hair loss, lack of appetite, thickened skin, and cold intolerance. IRON is a trace element contained in haemoglobin and myoglobin. It has an integral role in oxygen transport and cellular respiration. Haemoglobin which transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues requires iron. 60% of the iron stored within the equine body is within haemoglobin. L-CARNITINE is an amino acid compound, synthesised, almost exclusively in the liver, from lysine and methionine. Its primary function is to increase the ability of mitochondria to produce energy from fats. L-Carnitine works synergistically with alphalipoic acid. L-Carnitine has been reported to have positive effects on liver function, lipid plasma profile and liver cellular health. LINSEED OIL obtained from the flaxseed plant, Linum usitatissimum. It is an edible oil which contains the largest amount of the omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid when compared to other vegetable oils. It has been used for many years in horse diets for its properties as a mild digestive aid. MAGNESIUM is a trace element essential in energy production (ATP). The interdependence of magnesium and ATP means it has a role in nerve transmission/ excitation and normal muscle function. Magnesium aids in maintaining balance of minerals such as sodium, potassium and calcium. MANGANESE is a trace element essential for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and for synthesis of chondroitin sulphate in cartilage. It is also part of superoxide dismutase, an antioxidant which helps defend against damage caused by Ingredients Glossary Plusvital is dedicated to delivering optimum care through balanced nutrition and science. Each product has been carefully and scientifically formulated to bring you the best in equine supplementation. Our team of equine scientists, nutritionists and formulation experts ensures that each product is of the highest quality. Each ingredient in our products is carefully selected in line with current scientific thinking. Outlined below is a glossary of the individual ingredients used in our products, as well as their unique features and benefits. 41 GLOSSARY free radicals. METHIONINE is an amino acid which is combined with ATP by liver cells to form a compound called S-Adenosyl-LMethionine (SAMe). Decreased hepatic biosynthesis of SAMe occurs in chronic liver disease. Evidence shows that SAMe is hepatoprotective and may be used for increasing the acidity of urine, treating liver disorders, and improving wound healing. METHYL SULFONYL METHANE (MSM) is an organic, bioavailable form of sulphur. It is a natural analgesic compound, antioxidant compound, reduces inflammation and enhances the antiinflammatory action of cortisol. It also helps to reduce crosslinking in collagen and thus scar formation. MICROACTIVE® COQ10 is a cyclodextrin encapsulated, bioavailable form of Coenzyme-Q10 (CoQ10) which has been shown to be more available to the body after digestion by the gut. It also provides a slower 24 hour release of CoQ10 which means it will stay at higher levels in the body for longer. MILK THISTLE EXTRACT is a fat-soluble extract from the seeds of the plant Silybum marianum and is composed of three flavinolignans conjointly called Silymarin. Silymarin has antioxidant properties, decreases hepatic inflammation and protects the liver during exposure to various toxins. NATURAL POLYPHENOLS are a family of molecules with a chemical structure and antioxidant capabilities similar to those of Vitamin E. OMEGA 3 FATTY ACIDS are algae based long chain fatty acids which are required for the production and distribution of a class of hormones called prostaglandins, which have effects on the inflammatory system within the body. Also function in maintenance of cell membrane stability. PHOSPHORUS is a macromineral which is a main component of bone. It is also required in the body for synthesis of phospholipids (cell membranes), DNA and RNA. Additionally, it is involved in energy transfer reactions through the energy molecule ATP. POTASSIUM is a macromineral which is involved in maintaining the acid-base balance in the horse’s body as well as being involved in muscle contraction and proper nerve function. RIBOSE is a naturally occurring sugar which is one of the building blocks in the body for energy. In the body, energy is transferred around using an “energy molecule” known as Adenine triphosphate (ATP). Each ATP molecule contains one adenine unit, three phosphate units and one ribose (sugar) unit. ROSA CANINA extract from the dog rose plant contains polyphenols and anthocyanins which are believed to ease joint inflammation and prevent joint damage. It is also rich in vitamin C which has antioxidant properties. SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE is a probiotic yeast that can help maintain digestive function. It improves fibre digestion and microbial balance. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is particularly effective at combating changes to the diet such as tackling problems associated with feeding higher starch diets. SELENIUM (SE) is a trace element and it is a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which prevents free radical peroxides from attacking cellular membranes. Complementing vitamin E, it is an important element in supporting the integrity of cell membranes. SHORT CHAIN FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES (scFOC) are prebiotics composed of plant sugars linked in chains that promote the growth of certain beneficial bacteria within the digestive tract. They are fermented more rapidly and earlier in the digestive tract improving overall digestion of the horse. SODIUM is a macromineral which is involved in the regulation of fluids within the body. Sodium is an integral part of the thirst mechanism and loss during intense exercise or competition through sweating results in a decreased thirst drive which in turn may then lead to dehydration. SODIUM HYALURONATE is a GAG compound found in various connective tissues. It is a viscous compound which is a component of synovial fluid in joints. In this location it functions as a lubricant to aid in healthy movement of joints. THREONINE is an essential amino acid necessary for gastro-intestinal health in horses. It is one of the main two amino acids in the protein mucin that forms the mucosal barrier and protects the gut wall. Additionally, Threonine aids in nutrient absorption. It is also a component of immunoglobulins which aid in healing processes. TRISODIUM CITRATE is a weak base which can act as a buffer or acidity regulator. It neutralises lactic acid produced in the muscles and circulating in the bloodstream and thus can potentially reduce damage to skeletal muscle cells from lactic acid. TRYPTOPHAN is an essential amino acid and a precursor for Serotonin. Serotonin is synthesised in the body from tryptophan by the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter associated with inhibition of fear or stress. VITAMIN A is a fat soluble vitamin, which is essential for bone and muscle growth in young horses. It is also required for maintaining good vision, healthy skin, and reproductive health and can boost the immune system. VITAMIN B GROUP include Thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), Pyridoxine (B6), Folic Acid (B9) and Cyanocobalamin (B12). They have a range of functions including food metabolism/energy production, support of the nervous system and cell reproduction/ formation of DNA and growth. VITAMIN B4 (CHOLINE CHLORIDE) the principal function of this compound is to contribute methyl chemical groups to various cellular processes. Essential for building and maintaining the structure of cells. Also has a role in fat metabolism within the liver promoting utilisation and transport of fats. VITAMIN B7 (BIOTIN) is a sulphur containing vitamin which is necessary for cell growth and the production of both fatty acids and amino acids. Biotin has functions related to hoof health and structural integrity. VITAMIN C is a water soluble antioxidant vitamin that works with Vitamin E to reduce free radicals. As well as supporting the immune function, one of the most important functions of vitamin C is its involvement in collagen formation. Vitamin C is essential for the formation and maintenance of collagen. VITAMIN D is a fat soluble vitamin required to regulate the uptake of calcium and phosphorous from the diet. Vitamin D facilitates calcium absorption from the gut and its re-uptake within the kidney tubules. It also affects movement of calcium into and out of bones. VITAMIN E is a fat soluble antioxidant vitamin and is important for normal function of the muscular, immune and neurologic systems. The vitamin E family comprises of 8 naturally occurring compounds which can be sub-divided into two groups, tocopherols and tocotrienols. VITAMIN K is a group of similar compounds required by the body for successful synthesis of proteins which are involved in blood coagulation. In the absence of vitamin K blood clotting is seriously impaired. Vitamin K has also been shown to have beneficial effects in terms of overall vascular health. ZINC (ZN) is a micromineral that is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins. This mineral is part of many important enzymes within the body which are responsible for blood clotting, insulin production and wound healing. Zinc is also essential for DNA and protein synthesis.